RBSE Solutions for Class 11 English Hornbill Chapter 4 Landscape of the Soul
RBSE Solutions for Class 11 English Hornbill Chapter 4 Landscape of the Soul
Text Book Questions and Answers
Understanding the text
(i) Contrast the Chinese view of art with the European view with examples.
In the Chinese view, art is a representation of the mind or the spirit, whereas in the European view, it is of the figure or the body. While Chinese paintings reveal the inner world, the European paintings lay emphasis on a true representation of the physical appearance of the subject.
The examples of paintings by Wu Daozi and Quinten Metsys are representative of this difference. The painting by Metsys is life-like. It is an exact representation of a fly. The painting of Daozi, on the other hand, is not only beautiful but alive too. It has a way within that only the painter is aware of.
(ii) Explain the concept of shanshul
Shanshui expresses the Chinese view of art as a conceptual space. It literally means mountain-water, which, when used together, represent the word ‘landscape’. Mountain and water represent two complementary poles of an image. They are essentially Yang and Yin, two seemingly opposing forces complementing each other for a unified whole, the landscape. The mountain is Yang – stable, warm and dry in the sun, reaching vertically towards the sky, while the water is Yin – fluid, moist and cool, horizontal and resting on the earth.
(i) What do you understand by the terms ‘outsider art’ and ‘art brut’ or ‘raw art’?
Outsider art is a term that describes artistic creations by someone who has no formal training to be an artist. However, they show unmistakable artistic talent and insight, and their work poses a stimulating contrast to the mainstream art. Art brut or raw art, a term used by the painter Jean Dubuffet, refers to art forms which are outside the conventions of the mainstream art world. They are in their raw state in respect of their cultural and artistic influences.
(ii) Who was the “untutored genius who created a paradise ” and what is the nature of his contribution to art?
The untutored genius was Nek Chand Saini. He created a rock garden in Chandigarh. The garden is entirely sculpted with stones and recycled materials.
Talking about the text
Discuss the following statements in groups of four.
“The Emperor may rule over the territory he has conquered, but only the artist knows the way within.”
The Tang Emperor Xuanzong may have commissioned Wu Daozi to create a great work of art. The Emperor wields power over his territory and wealth to control the lives of his people. However, the artist who creates a work of art understands his work in a manner that nobody can. In Wu Daozi’s case, we see that the Emperor cannot enter the work of art as Wu does, because despite all his power, he can never be a part of the space shared by Wu and his work of art. That relationship is too sacred and personal a space for anybody to enter.
“The landscape is an inner one, a spiritual and conceptual space.”
This landscape is described by the article as Shanshui, which translates to mountain-water. Two different sides to an artwork, just like Yin and Yang. The mountain which reaches towards heaven and the water which treads across the earth. These two sides therefore also portray the spiritual which transcends into the heavenly, and the conceptual which wades through the earth. In this landscape the artist has been able to capture a scene not just as he would view it, but more than that, subjectively the multiple ways in which his mind would think about a landscape. He wants the viewer to be able to enter and understand his mind.
Thinking about language
Find out the correlates of Yin and Yang in other cultures.
In Christianity, this can be seen in the struggle between being heaven for those who repent of sin and hell for those who do not. In Vedanta philosophy in the Gita this can be seen in the division between Akshara, the invisible soul and the Kshara, the visible body. Similarly many other cultures have similar binaries between black and white, good and evil and so on.
What is the language spoken in Flanders?
Although Flanders is in Belgium, the language primarily spoken in the region is Dutch.
Working with words
I. The following common words are used in more than one sense.
panel , studio , brush , essence , material
Examine the following sets of sentences to find out what the words, ‘panel’ and ‘essence’ mean in different contexts.
(i) The masks from Bawa village in Mali look like long panels of decorated wood.
A flat rectangular piece of wood
(ii) Judge H. Hobart Grooms told the jury panel he had heard the reports.
A small group of people selected to pass a judgement
(iii) The panel is laying the groundwork for an international treaty.
A small group of people selected to represent a larger group
(iv) The glass panels of the window were broken.
A flat rectangular piece of glass, which is part of a window
(v) Through the many round tables, workshops and panel discussions, a consensus was reached.
A small group of people that participates in a discussion amongst themselves
(vi) The sink in the hinged panel above the bunk drains into the head.
A rectangular case used to keep something
(i) Their repetitive structure must have taught the people around the great composer the essence of music.
What goes into composing music
(ii) Part of the answer is in the proposition; but the essence is in the meaning.
The actual answer
(iii) The implications of these schools of thought are of practical essence for the teacher.
Practically the most important aspect
(iv) They had added vanilla essence to the pudding.
A strong liquid used to add flavour
II. Now find five sentences each for the rest of the words to show the different senses in which each of them is used.
- I live in a studio apartment.
- They hired a studio to record their music album.
- That is one of the most famous studios because the biggest actors work for them.
- Can we get a studio audience for the news channel’s evening show?
- He owns a ballet studio on the other side of the city.
- This factory produces a lot of waste material.
- Thankfully the storm did not cause any material damage in the town.
- The material foundations of the building have been laid.
- Do you have the material needed to make the dress?
- He is very fond of material things, and therefore can never be trusted.
- He needs to brush up on his knowledge of the subject.
- I used to brush my shoes but then I could no longer find the time.
- She needs a new brush to paint with.
- He would brush past me every day on the metro because he was in such a hurry.
- A classical Chinese landscape is not meant to reproduce an actual view, as would a Western figurative painting.
- Whereas the European painter wants you to borrow his eyes and look at a particular landscape exactly as he saw it, from a specific angle, the Chinese painter does not choose a single viewpoint.
The above two examples are ways in which contrast may be expressed. Combine the following sets of ideas to show the contrast between them.
(i) European art tries to achieve a perfect, illusionistic likeness
(ii) Asian art tries to capture the essence of inner life and spirit.
European art tries to perfect the image of the world it captures, trying to be as close to real life as possible, whereas Asian art tries to go beyond the physical world to capture the subjective picture, as one’s inner life and spirit would see it.
(i) The Emperor commissions a painting and appreciates its outer appearance,
(ii) The artist reveals to him the true meaning of his work.
While the Emperor pays for the artwork and appreciates the physical depiction that is portrayed, only the artist who carefully crafts the painting understands the true meaning of his work.
(i) The Emperor may rule over the territory he has conquered
(ii) The artist knows the way within.
While the Emperor wields power to rule over his kingdom, only the artist understands the method he uses in his artwork, and how the work reflects the mysterious nature of the universe.
Things to do
Find out about as many Indian schools of painting as you can. Write a short note on the distinctive features of each school.
Mughal Painting: This began during the reign of Humayun, the 2nd Mughal emperor. This style of painting was influenced heavily by Persian art. Mughal painters used bright colours, focussed on the fine details of costumes and gold, and also captured scenes of wildlife and nature. Most portraits of famous courtiers and royalty had the subjects posing with particular gestures of hands and face. Considered the golden period for miniature painting in India.
Rajasthani Painting: This style of painting began under the Rajput emperors after the 17th century. This began after the relationship between the Mughal and the Rajasthani empires improved, leading to influence of Mughal painting on local artists. Most of the painters chose their subjects as scenes taken from Hindu religious poetry. Traditional painting on walls was replaced by miniature paintings.
Pahari Painting: Most of these painters practiced their art in places like Kashmir, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh and neighbouring territories. Here also a lot of bright colours were used, with themes that varied from focussing on nature to depicting the gracefulness of female subjects .
Bengal School of Art: A more recent school which began during the British Raj in the early 20 century. It was a part of the Indian nationalist movement, which sought to distinguish itself from art forms promoted in British art schools across India. Therefore the themes focussed on by painters were also those that may help promote Indian nationalism. Some other schools of art in Indian include Tribal painting, Kerala mural painting and so on.
Find out about experiments in recycling that help in environmental conservation.
Some recent efforts to cut down on environmental pollution include the setting up of recycling centers to collect material that can be used again like tin cans, plastic bottles and containers, electronic equipment and waste paper. The setting up of trash bins to separate degradable and non-degradable waste has also helped reduce the amount of waste in garbage dumps. Further inventions like biodegradable bags and bottles, cars running on electricity or water instead of petrol, robots to sift through trash cans to utilise waste, and so on have helped the process of environmental conservation.
RBSE Solutions for Class 11 English Hornbill Chapter 4 Landscape of the Soul, Study Learner